Source code for flask_principal

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

    Identity management for Flask.

    :copyright: (c) 2012 by Ali Afshar.
    :license: MIT, see LICENSE for more details.


from __future__ import with_statement

__version__ = '0.4.0'

import sys

from functools import partial, wraps
from collections import deque

from collections import namedtuple

from flask import g, session, current_app, abort, request
from flask.signals import Namespace

PY3 = sys.version_info[0] == 3

signals = Namespace()

identity_changed = signals.signal('identity-changed', doc="""
Signal sent when the identity for a request has been changed.

Actual name: ``identity-changed``

Authentication providers should send this signal when authentication has been
successfully performed. Flask-Principal connects to this signal and
causes the identity to be saved in the session.

For example::

    from flaskext.principal import Identity, identity_changed

    def login_view(req):
        username = req.form.get('username')
        # check the credentials
        identity_changed.send(app, identity=Identity(username))

identity_loaded = signals.signal('identity-loaded', doc="""
Signal sent when the identity has been initialised for a request.

Actual name: ``identity-loaded``

Identity information providers should connect to this signal to perform two
major activities:

    1. Populate the identity object with the necessary authorization provisions.
    2. Load any additional user information.

For example::

    from flaskext.principal import identity_loaded, RoleNeed, UserNeed

    def on_identity_loaded(sender, identity):
        # Get the user information from the db
        user = db.get(
        # Update the roles that a user can provide
        for role in user.roles:
        # Save the user somewhere so we only look it up once
        identity.user = user

Need = namedtuple('Need', ['method', 'value'])
"""A required need

This is just a named tuple, and practically any tuple will do.

The ``method`` attribute can be used to look up element 0, and the ``value``
attribute can be used to look up element 1.

UserNeed = partial(Need, 'id')
UserNeed.__doc__ = """A need with the method preset to `"id"`."""

RoleNeed = partial(Need, 'role')
RoleNeed.__doc__ = """A need with the method preset to `"role"`."""

TypeNeed = partial(Need, 'type')
TypeNeed.__doc__ = """A need with the method preset to `"type"`."""

ActionNeed = partial(Need, 'action')
TypeNeed.__doc__ = """A need with the method preset to `"action"`."""

ItemNeed = namedtuple('ItemNeed', ['method', 'value', 'type'])
"""A required item need

An item need is just a named tuple, and practically any tuple will do. In
addition to other Needs, there is a type, for example this could be specified

    ItemNeed('update', 27, 'posts')
    ('update', 27, 'posts') # or like this

And that might describe the permission to update a particular blog post. In
reality, the developer is free to choose whatever convention the permissions

class PermissionDenied(RuntimeError):
    """Permission denied to the resource"""

class Identity(object):
    """Represent the user's identity.

    :param id: The user id
    :param auth_type: The authentication type used to confirm the user's

    The identity is used to represent the user's identity in the system. This
    object is created on login, or on the start of the request as loaded from
    the user's session.

    Once loaded it is sent using the `identity-loaded` signal, and should be
    populated with additional required information.

    Needs that are provided by this identity should be added to the `provides`
    set after loading.
    def __init__(self, id, auth_type=None): = id
        self.auth_type = auth_type
        self.provides = set()

    def can(self, permission):
        """Whether the identity has access to the permission.

        :param permission: The permission to test provision for.
        return permission.allows(self)

    def __repr__(self):
        return '<{0} id="{1}" auth_type="{2}" provides={3}>'.format(
            self.__class__.__name__,, self.auth_type, self.provides

class AnonymousIdentity(Identity):
    """An anonymous identity"""

    def __init__(self):
        Identity.__init__(self, None)

class IdentityContext(object):
    """The context of an identity for a permission.

    .. note:: The principal is usually created by the flaskext.Permission.require method
              call for normal use-cases.

    The principal behaves as either a context manager or a decorator. The
    permission is checked for provision in the identity, and if available the
    flow is continued (context manager) or the function is executed (decorator).

    def __init__(self, permission, http_exception=None):
        self.permission = permission
        self.http_exception = http_exception
        """The permission of this principal

    def identity(self):
        """The identity of this principal
        return g.identity

    def can(self):
        """Whether the identity has access to the permission
        return self.identity.can(self.permission)

    def __call__(self, f):
        def _decorated(*args, **kw):
            with self:
                rv = f(*args, **kw)
            return rv
        return _decorated

    def __enter__(self):
        # check the permission here
        if not self.can():
            if self.http_exception:
                abort(self.http_exception, self.permission)
            raise PermissionDenied(self.permission)

    def __exit__(self, *args):
        return False

class Permission(object):
    """Represents needs, any of which must be present to access a resource

    :param needs: The needs for this permission
    def __init__(self, *needs):
        """A set of needs, any of which must be present in an identity to have

        self.needs = set(needs)
        self.excludes = set()

    def _bool(self):
        return bool(self.can())

    def __nonzero__(self):
        """Equivalent to ``self.can()``.
        return self._bool()

    def __bool__(self):
        """Equivalent to ``self.can()``.
        return self._bool()

    def __and__(self, other):
        """Does the same thing as ``self.union(other)``
        return self.union(other)

    def __or__(self, other):
        """Does the same thing as ``self.difference(other)``
        return self.difference(other)

    def __contains__(self, other):
        """Does the same thing as ``other.issubset(self)``.
        return other.issubset(self)

    def __repr__(self):
        return '<{0} needs={1} excludes={2}>'.format(
            self.__class__.__name__, self.needs, self.excludes

    def require(self, http_exception=None):
        """Create a principal for this permission.

        The principal may be used as a context manager, or a decroator.

        If ``http_exception`` is passed then ``abort()`` will be called
        with the HTTP exception code. Otherwise a ``PermissionDenied``
        exception will be raised if the identity does not meet the

        :param http_exception: the HTTP exception code (403, 401 etc)
        return IdentityContext(self, http_exception)

    def test(self, http_exception=None):
        Checks if permission available and raises relevant exception
        if not. This is useful if you just want to check permission
        without wrapping everything in a require() block.

        This is equivalent to::

            with permission.require():

        with self.require(http_exception):

    def reverse(self):
        Returns reverse of current state (needs->excludes, excludes->needs)

        p = Permission()
        return p

    def union(self, other):
        """Create a new permission with the requirements of the union of this
        and other.

        :param other: The other permission
        p = Permission(*self.needs.union(other.needs))
        return p

    def difference(self, other):
        """Create a new permission consisting of requirements in this
        permission and not in the other.

        p = Permission(*self.needs.difference(other.needs))
        return p

    def issubset(self, other):
        """Whether this permission needs are a subset of another

        :param other: The other permission
        return (
            self.needs.issubset(other.needs) and

    def allows(self, identity):
        """Whether the identity can access this permission.

        :param identity: The identity
        if self.needs and not self.needs.intersection(identity.provides):
            return False

        if self.excludes and self.excludes.intersection(identity.provides):
            return False

        return True

    def can(self):
        """Whether the required context for this permission has access

        This creates an identity context and tests whether it can access this
        return self.require().can()

class Denial(Permission):
    Shortcut class for passing excluded needs.

    def __init__(self, *excludes):
        self.excludes = set(excludes)
        self.needs = set()

def session_identity_loader():
    if '' in session and 'identity.auth_type' in session:
        identity = Identity(session[''],
        return identity

def session_identity_saver(identity):
    session[''] =
    session['identity.auth_type'] = identity.auth_type
    session.modified = True

class Principal(object):
    """Principal extension

    :param app: The flask application to extend
    :param use_sessions: Whether to use sessions to extract and store
    :param skip_static: Whether to ignore static endpoints.
    def __init__(self, app=None, use_sessions=True, skip_static=False):
        self.identity_loaders = deque()
        self.identity_savers = deque()
        # XXX This will probably vanish for a better API
        self.use_sessions = use_sessions
        self.skip_static = skip_static

        if app is not None:

    def _init_app(self, app):
        from warnings import warn
            '_init_app is deprecated, use the new init_app '
            'method instead.'), stacklevel=1

    def init_app(self, app):
        if hasattr(app, 'static_url_path'):
            self._static_path = app.static_url_path
            self._static_path = app.static_path

        identity_changed.connect(self._on_identity_changed, app)

        if self.use_sessions:

    def set_identity(self, identity):
        """Set the current identity.

        :param identity: The identity to set

        for saver in self.identity_savers:

    def identity_loader(self, f):
        """Decorator to define a function as an identity loader.

        An identity loader function is called before request to find any
        provided identities. The first found identity is used to load from.

        For example::

            app = Flask(__name__)

            principals = Principal(app)

            def load_identity_from_weird_usecase():
                return Identity('ali')
        return f

    def identity_saver(self, f):
        """Decorator to define a function as an identity saver.

        An identity loader saver is called when the identity is set to persist
        it for the next request.

        For example::

            app = Flask(__name__)

            principals = Principal(app)

            def save_identity_to_weird_usecase(identity):
                my_special_cookie['identity'] = identity
        return f

    def _set_thread_identity(self, identity):
        g.identity = identity

    def _on_identity_changed(self, app, identity):
        if self._is_static_route():


    def _on_before_request(self):
        if self._is_static_route():

        g.identity = AnonymousIdentity()
        for loader in self.identity_loaders:
            identity = loader()
            if identity is not None:

    def _is_static_route(self):
        return (
            self.skip_static and